Nipah virus infection can be diagnosed with clinical history during the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. The main tests used are real time polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR from bodily fluids and antibody detection via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Nipah virus NiV is an emerging pathogen that, unlike other priority pathogens identified by WHO, is endemic to Southeast Asia. It is most commonly transmitted through exposure to saliva or excrement from the Pteropus fruit bat, or direct contact with intermediate animal hosts, such as pigs.
Henipavirus Outbreaks and Pteropus Distribution Map Countries with reported outbreak of at risk based on serological evidence or molecular detection in Pteropus bats Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, PNG Taiwan, Thailand. Nipah virus NiV is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. NiV was initially isolated and identified in 1999 NiV was initially isolated and identified in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in Malaysia.
confirmed Nipah virus infection was defined as a person with detectable IgM antibodies against Nipah virus 24 or IgG for retrospectively identi-fied outbreaks, and a patient with probable Nipah virus infection was defined as a person with an epidemiologic link to a confirmed case patient who died before specimens for testing could be collected. SECTION 2 – Hazard Identification.PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Nipah virus can cause a neurologic and respiratory disease, with symptoms including fever, headache, drowsiness, nausea, confusion, vomiting, cough, giddiness, and myalgia 4, 8, 12, 13. The infection may be mild or sub-clinical in 8.
The ecology of Nipah virus and the first identification of a bat Pegivirus in Pteropus medius, Bangladesh. London: Kingston University; 2017. Lo MK, Lowe L, Hummel KB, Sazzad HMS, Gurley ES, Hossain MJ, et al. Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008-2010. The first identification of Nipah virus as a cause of an outbreak of encephalitis was reported in 2001 in Meherpur district of Bangladesh. Since then, outbreaks of Nipah virus encephalitis have been reported almost every year in selected districts of Bangladesh. Read the story. May 30, 2018 · Nipah virus infections in humans were reported for the first time in 1998, following identification of the virus during an outbreak of acute encephalitis in Nipah.
Presumptive identification of virus types can be made by observing morphological changes produced in host cells CPE, caused by cytopathogenic viruses. Common damage to the host cells includes rounding of cells, a change in texture granular or hyaline—glassy, and formation of a. Until 2004, identification of Nipah virus NV-like outbreaks in Bangladesh was based on serology. We describe the genetic characterization of a new strain of NV isolated during outbreaks in Bangladesh NV-B in 2004, which confirms that NV was the etiologic agent responsible for these outbreaks. Nipah virus NiV is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first identified as the cause of an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in Malaysia and Singapore during 1998–1999. Although NiV infection remains rare in humans, this virus has captured the attention of the public health community and scientists because of its high case-fatality rate, ranging from 40% in Malaysia to >90% in Bangladesh and India.
Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats, including Pteropus vampyrus large flying fox, and Pteropus hypomelanus small flying fox, both of which occur in Malaysia. Nipah virus is a recently described paramyxovirus that causes an acute febrile encephalitic syndrome with a high mortality rate. 258-260 Pathology played a key role in identifying the causative agent.
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